Georgia Divorce Laws

Dreamstime_1802284 The increase in divorce has its effect, directly or indirectly, on virtually every family in the country. The following information is designed to summarize briefly Georgia’s divorce laws.

Marriage is a civil contract which the state has an interest in preserving. Accordingly, the marriage relationship can be dissolved only as provided by law, by either a divorce or an annulment. It also may be altered by a decree of separation granted by our courts. In any case, there must be a proceeding in the Superior Court of the county in which the person seeking the divorce, separation decree or annulment must prove "grounds" (valid reasons prescribed by law).

What are the grounds for divorce in Georgia?

In Georgia there are 13 grounds for divorce. One ground is "irretrievably broken" (sometimes referred to as the "no-fault" ground). The other 12 grounds for divorce in Georgia are "fault" grounds.

What is a "no-fault" divorce?

To obtain a divorce on this basis (irretrievably broken), one party must establish that he or she refuses to live with the other spouse and that there is no hope of reconciliation. It is not necessary to show that there was any fault or wrongdoing by either party.

What are the "fault" grounds?

To obtain a divorce on one of the 12 "fault" grounds, one must prove that there was some wrongdoing by one of the parties to the marriage.

As an example, one fault ground is adultery. Adultery in Georgia includes heterosexual and homosexual relations between one spouse and another individual.

Another "fault" ground for divorce in Georgia is desertion. A divorce may be granted on the grounds that a person has deserted his or her spouse willfully for at least a year. Other "fault" grounds include mental or physical cruel treatment, marriage between persons who are too closely related, mental incapacity at the time of marriage, impotency at the time of marriage, force or fraud in obtaining the marriage, pregnancy of the wife unknown to the husband at the time of the marriage, conviction and imprisonment for certain crimes, habitual intoxication or drug addiction, and mental illness.

Is there a residence requirement for getting a divorce in Georgia?

Yes, one spouse must have lived in the state of Georgia for six months or Georgia must have been the last domicile of the marriage.

Must the husband and wife live apart when a divorce complaint is filed?

No, but the spouses must be considered separated in a legal sense before one can file for a divorce. Spouses may be considered separated even if they are living in the same house, if they are not sharing the same room and/or not having a sexual relationship.

How does one file for a divorce?

The person seeking the divorce (the plaintiff) will file a document called a "complaint" with the appropriate Superior Court. This complaint includes information on the marriage including present living arrangements, children of the marriage, assets, debts, and the specific reason claimed for seeking a divorce. A copy of the complaint will be served on the other spouse (the defendant) by the sheriff.

Where does one file for a divorce?

A complaint for divorce should be filed in the Superior Court of the defendant’s county of residence or, if the defendant has recently moved from the state of Georgia, in the county of the plaintiff’s residence. This would be considered the domicile of the marriage. Upon the defendant’s consent, the complaint may be filed in the plaintiff’s county of residence regardless of whether the defendant has moved from the state of Georgia or not.

What should I do if I receive a complaint for divorce that my spouse has filed?

The spouse who receives the complaint should promptly consult a lawyer. The spouse may contest the reason claimed for the divorce or contest the claims for child custody, child support, alimony or property division by filing an answer with the court. If an answer is not filed within 30 days, the right to contest the complaint may be lost.

Is there a way to live apart without getting a divorce?

A party who wishes to live apart permanently, but who does not want to get a divorce, may file a "separate maintenance" action. The spouses will remain legally married although living apart. The court may order that alimony be paid by one spouse to the other and the court may divide property between the parties.

What is an annulment?

Unlike a divorce, which dissolves a valid marriage, an annulment is a legal decree that the marriage is now void and was invalid from its inception. If there are children born of the marriage, an annulment may not be granted and the marriage may only be dissolved by divorce.

Must I go to court to get a divorce?

Not necessarily. Spouses may be able to reach an agreement resolving all issues arising from the marriage, including finances, division of property and custody and visitation of children. The agreement is presented to the court as a settlement agreement and, upon approval, made an order of the court. The court’s order, called a final judgment and decree, concludes the lawsuit. If the parties cannot reach an agreement, a judge or jury will resolve the issues. However, a judge always decides matters of child custody and visitation.

How long does it take to get a divorce?

If there is agreement between the parties, the divorce is considered uncontested. An uncontested divorce may be granted 31 days after the defendant has been served with the complaint for divorce. If there is disagreement as to any matter, the divorce will be obtained when the case reaches the court, which can take many months.

What happens while I wait to go to court?

Either of the spouses may request a temporary hearing. This hearing is not a final trial. A temporary hearing resolves the issues of child custody, visitation, child support, alimony, debts and possession of property on a temporary basis until the final trial. The judge will issue a temporary order that applies only until the time of the final trial. The temporary order may also prohibit one party from interfering with the other party or the children and prevent the transfer and selling of assets.

What is decided at final trial?

Questions of child custody and visitation are decided by the judge. The judge alone or a 12-person jury (if one of the parties has requested) will resolve all of the financial issues of the marriage, such as division of property, division of debts, alimony and certain findings concerning child support (gross income of both parties and whether any deviations from teh presumptive amount of child support are in the best interests of the child, and if so, what those deviations should be). At the final trial, both spouses present evidence by their own testimony and may call other witnesses. The decision rendered by a judge or jury is written into a court order that is binding upon both parties. The wife’s maiden or former name can be re-established if she so desires.

What about the children?

The welfare of children is of major concern to the court. Neither parent is automatically entitled to custody. The judge looks at the best interests of the child when determining  custody. The judge considers many factors when deciding custody, including the age and sex of the child, compatibility with each parent and the ability of each parent to care for and nurture the child. A child more than 14 years of age can choose which parent will have custody upon the consent of the court. The court considers it important for a child to maintain relationships with both parents; therefore, visitation rights are awarded to the parent who is not given legal custody of the child.

May the parents share custody?

The court, in its discretion, can award joint custody instead of sole custody. There are two types of joint custody. Joint legal custody means that both parents have equal rights and responsibilities for major decisions concerning the child; joint physical custody means that physical custody is shared by the parents in such a way to assure the child substantially equal time and contact with both parents. In awarding joint custody, the court may order joint legal custody, joint physical custody or both.

What are child support obligations?

The child support law in Georgia changed effective Jan. 1, 2007. The new law is based on an "income shares" model that requires consideration of both parties’ gross income. "Gross income" has a very broad definition and encompasses salary, commissions, income from self-employment, bonuses, overtime payments, severance pay, recurring income from pensions, interest and divident income, trust income, capital gains, gifts, prizes, lottery winnings and income from any other source. Once the monthly gross income of each party is determined, the two incomes are added together to get the combined ajusted income amount. A Child Support Obligation Table is then used to get the Basic Child Support Obligation. To use the table, locate the line corresponding with the combined adjusted income amount and then apply the amount in the column that corresponds with the number of children for whom support is being determined. That Basic Child Support Obligation is then applied to each parent’s proportionate share of the combined adjusted incom
e.

(For example, if the father’s monthly gross income is $3,000 and the mother’s montly gross income is $2,000, their combined adjusted income is $5,000, of which the mother’s income represents 40 percent and the father’s income represents 60 percent. The child support obligation for a family with combined adjusted income of $5,000 per month for two children is $1,297. Thus, if the father is the noncustodial parent, he will pay 60 percent of the child support obligation, $778.20, or if the mother is the noncustodial parent, she will pay $518.80, which is 40 percent of the child support obligation.)

The cost of medical insurance on the child and the cost of work-related childcare will result in the amount of the child support payment being modified with credit being given to the parent who is actually paying these expenses. In addition, the amount of child support may be modified by certain deviations provided it is in the best interest of the child to deviate from the presumptive amount of child support. Examples of deviations may be extraordinary education expenses like private school tuition or tutoring; extraordinary medical expenses; or special expenses which must exceed 7 percent of the basic child support obligation, such as extracurricular expenses, sumer camps, dental insurance, parenting time adjustment or any other appropriate deviation. You can access the guided electronic worksheet used in calculating child support at www.georgiacourts.org/csc. You may also download an Excel version of the worksheet through this same website.

In addition to the child support payment, the court (or parties by agreement) will also designate what percentage each parent will pay of the child’s uncovered medical and dental expenses.

In Georgia, both parents have a duty to financially support the child until that child turns 18, marries, dies or becomes emancipated, whichever occurs first. However, if the child has not graduated from high school prior to reaching age 18, then the obligation to support that child continues until the child graduates from high school provided the child remains a full-time student, but not beyond the age of 20.

May I receive money for the children’s college?

The court cannot order parents to pay for college. However, parents may agree to pay child support beyond the age of 18 or to pay for college expenses.

What is alimony?

Alimony is payment by one spouse to the other for support and maintenance. The court may grant alimony to either the husband or the wife. Alimony may be for a limited period or until the spouse receiving alimony dies or remarries. It may be paid in one payment of money or property, or it may be paid over a period of time.

What happens to "our" possessions in a divorce?

One of the most difficult and complex areas of divorce is the division of marital property. Marital property is all property acquired during the marriage, except for property received by gift from a third party or by inheritance. Each spouse is entitled to an equitable share of all marital property acquired during the marriage. The judge or jury will decide on the division of marital property. Marital property will be divided equitably (not necessarily equally) between the parties regardless of how the title to the property is held. There is no set formula or percentage amount used to divide marital property.

How will the court order be enforced?

The court order can be enforced by garnishment or a contempt action. A contempt action is filed in the same court that issued the divorce. In addition, support orders can be enforced through the district attorney’s office if the non-paying spouse resides out of town.

If my spouse and I agree on all matters pertaining to getting a divorce, do we still need a lawyer?

A lawyer will ensure that all matters that should be resolved in a divorce are resolved. Acting without a lawyer could end up being a costly mistake both to the parties and to their children.

What do I do if I am the victim of family violence?

Georgia has a law protecting victims of family violence. The parties do not have to be married in order for a victim to ask the court for relief. However, the parties have to reside in the same household. A victim of family violence can file a petition with the Superior Court that family violence has occurred in the past and may occur in the future. The court can issue a temporary order granting a variety of remedies, including eviction of the offending party from the residence or providing suitable alternate housing for the victim and children, as well as financial relief.

The victim does not need a lawyer to file a Family Violence Petition. The clerk of the Superior Court in the victim’s residing county may provide forms for the Petition or be able to direct a victim to a family violence shelter or social service agency for direction.

SOURCE: State Bar of Georgia

Georgia Appeals FAQ

I am dissatisfied with the outcome of my domestic relations case. Can I file an appeal?
Possibly. Your ability to file an appeal depends on the nature your case. Certain cases are subject to direct appeal procedures, which means that Georgia law grants you the right to appeal. Other cases are subject to discretionary appeal procedures, which means that you must request and be given permission to file an appeal with the Georgia Supreme Court or the Georgia Court of Appeals.

I am dissatisfied with the outcome of my divorce case. Can I file an appeal?
For the past few years, the Supreme Court of Georgia has implemented a Pilot Project for cases involving divorce and/or alimony. Under the Pilot Project, discretionary applications for appeal, which are timely filed from the final judgment and decree of divorce, will be automatically granted unless the application is found to be frivolous by the Court. The Court will deny frivolous applications, and the applicant as well as his or her attorney may be assessed a penalty of up to $2,500.00. Please check with an attorney to ensure this process is still in existence or has not been modified by the time you wish to file an appeal.

The court ordered to me to pay an amount of child support which I believe is too high. Can I file an appeal?
[Presently] child support cases are subject to discretionary appeal procedures, which means that you must request and be given permission from the appellate court to file an appeal.

The court ordered my ex-husband to pay child support to me, but I think the amount is too low. Can I file an appeal?
[C]hild support cases are subject to discretionary appeal procedures, which means that you must request and be given permission from the appellate court to file an appeal.

I am considering whether or not to file an appeal? How much time do I have to decide?
Generally, you must file your appeal or application for appeal within 30 days from the entry of a final order. If you hire an attorney to file the appeal, the attorney will need as much time as possible to prepare the appeal so hiring an attorney on the 29th day will likely make it impossible for the attorney to file an appeal.

SOURCE: DivorceNet

Appeals Rights Under House Bill 369

Georgia law currently provides that appeals in family law cases are, for the most part, discretionary and must be filed by application seeking permission from the appellate court to appeal the order of the trial court. The Supreme Court of Georgia has attempted to address criticism of this rule (and to blunt eforts to restore the right of direct appeal in such cases) by its Domestic Relations Pilot Project (which has been extended to June 30, 2007), under which the Court will automaticaly accept all discretionary appeals in domestic relations cases which are not frivolous.

The efforts in the legislature to restore direct appeals in these very important cases has continued, though.

In SB 382 as introduced in 2006, the right of direct appeal would have been restored, but the appeals provisiosn were removed on the last day of the session in order to obtain passage of the Child Support Guidelines legislation.

In 2007, the issue has come forward again. In HB 369, as originaly introduced, to the list of cases which could be directly appealed was added:

All judgments or orders in divorce, alimony, child custody, and other domestic relations cases including, but not limited to, granting or refusing a divorce or temporary or permanent alimony, awarding or refusing to change child custody, or holding or declining to hold persons in contempt of such alimony or child custody judgment or orders."

In the bill which was passed, as a Rules Committee substitute, on March 27, 2007, this language survived, at least as to cases involving child custody. Other domestic relations typoes of cases remain subject to discretionary appeal procedures. Interestingly enough, the right to appeal orders terminating parental rights was also newly included in the list of cases requiring an application for appeal.

Sleeping on her dormancy rights? Corvin v. Debter

In Corvin v. Debter, the was over a provision in the parties’ divorce decree that

Husband was to receive $22,000 as his share of the equity in the marital home when Wife either remarried, entered into a meritricious relationship or when the parties’ youngest child turned 18. The record showed that “Wife remarried in 1996, but did not pay Husband the $22,000.” Husband later filed for contempt, and the trial court “found that Wife was in contempt and ordered her to sell the home and pay Husband $22,000 from the proceeds.” Wife contended “that Husband could not recover because the judgment had become dormant pursuant to OCGA § 9-12-60 and that he had not attempted to revive it.”

In affirming the court below, the Supreme Court has ruled that “in her answer to Husband’s motion for contempt, Wife did not raise dormancy as a defense to her obligation to comply with the provisions of the divorce decree,” and that as a result she waived a defense based upon the statute of limitations.

SOURCE: Supreme Court of Georgia